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79 - Renovation - Hiver - 2014
Sylvette Babin

This issue on the theme of re-enactment arose from the desire to cast a critical eye on the not-so-new but very current trends of restaging cult exhibitions or re-enacting historical events, on the one hand, and “reproducing” performances that have marked art history, on the other. Whereas in the art world re-enactments are frequently motivated by a reactualization or critical rereading of a social or political event, restagings of exhibitions or performances seem more oriented toward the valorisation of an artist’s work or of a significant moment in art history — toward an homage of sorts. Two quite distinct directions therefore emerged as this issue was put together.

The most eloquent cases of restagings of historical performances are certainly the renowned re-enactments of Marina Abramović. Although frequently motivated by the desire to uphold the memory of mythical works, the practice of re-enactment raises numerous questions concerning the resulting repetition, representation, and spectacularization — theatrical specificities initially questioned by the performers — and the inevitable decontextualization of the works and their reinterpretation by another artist. The latter aspect also serves to relaunch the debate around authorship and intellectual property, as Amelia Jones clearly emphasizes: “By redoing earlier works, the artist draws on the previous artist’s name to further her own career.” These re-enactments also give rise to the commodification — real or symbolic — of the traces of “new” performances, a phenomenon exacerbated when original archival material (sometimes missing or of questionable quality) is overshadowed by the highly polished documentation of the re-enacted works.

Providing deeper insight into the challenges and pitfalls of re-enactment, the critical analysis offered by Jones seemed sufficiently enlightening to be the sole text to examine the re-enactment of performance. In this issue, we have chosen to give precedence to writings on artistic re-enactments that revisit moments in history — moments of political, military, or judicial import. We also shine a light on the terminology used to distinguish the numerous manifestations of re-enactment from forms of replay, in which the critical impact usually associated with re-enactment tends to get lost. Referring to the ideas of philosopher R. G. Collingwood, Jacinto Lageira reminds us that re-enactment involves “re-thinking the ideas and conceptions of the past and, above all, reading them critically, making value judgments, and bringing forward historical proofs of what we are claiming.” To explain, he quotes Collingwood: “[The] object to be discovered is not the mere event, but the thought expressed in it.” It is exactly this perspective that the authors published here have chosen to present, by selecting re-enactments that, for the most part, (1) offer a critical — or even satirical — view of the events being re-enacted. Serving as a source for re-enactments, archival documents, whose contents are themselves often biased by subjective choices or the limits of documentation, are often revisited to either question their accuracy and restore their veracity, or to counter propagandist leanings, or to give them new meaning. The results are works of fiction that, despite being dependent on the events at their origin, undeniably acquire their own distinct identity. It therefore becomes interesting to examine the theme of re-enactment from the point of view of the French term réplique, (2) which, by force of its two-fold meaning of replica and retort (in response to uncertainties surrounding the original event), implicitly intersects with the various stances taken by the artists and authors published in this issue.

[Translated from the French by Louise Ashcroft]


(1) The exceptions are the re-enactments of performances and the reconstructions of artworks, such as those by Adad Hannah, presented in this issue.

(2) Elitza Dulguerova, “L’expérience et son double, Notes sur la reconstruction d’expositions et la photographie,” Intermédialité, no. 15 (spring 2010): 53 — 71, www.erudit.org/revue/im/2010/v/n15/044674ar.html.

78 - Hybrid Dance - Printemps / été - 2013
Sylvette Babin
 Caption: Klaus Obermaier, <em>Apparition</em>, 2004. Photo: courtesy of Klaus Obermaier & Ars Electronica Futurelab

Hybrid Forms of Dance

Dance and the visual arts have a long history of common ground, which, through diverse fusions, has given rise to an array of interdisciplinary works drawing on their respective fields of expertise. Today, the profusion of interdisciplinary collaborations bears witness to a renewed interest in hybrid practices. In works born of such collaborations, at least those of interest to us here, it is not simply a question of adopting or investing in the usual presentation contexts of each discipline, by presenting choreographed works in a museum, for example, or by using works of art as decorative elements in a theatrical production. Rather, it is an opportunity for artists, dancers, and choreographers to reflect on different forms of collaboration that will open up new horizons for their practices. It is from this perspective that we wished to approach this issue, by examining contemporary dance and its encounters with the arts, with performance, with theatre, and even with circus arts and cabaret.

The role of new technologies in the domain of dance — several articles touch on this — certainly contributes to the mixing of genres, while the body, real or suggested, is called upon as much for its presence on stage as for its part in the construction of images. Yet if the digital arts have served to blur the boundaries between disciplines, there is still widespread interest in “traditional” forms, drawing on all but “rudimentary technology,” resulting in choreographic works in which the rapport with materiality and the object is an essential element. In this vein, the works that captured the attention of our authors reveal several commonalities, such as the desire to defy the codes and conventions of representation and spectacle, collaboration between practitioners and encounters with the public, human-machine interaction, and the relationship of the body with the object. The artists featured in these pages create spaces or situations in which the body is no longer the sole actor; images and both material and immaterial artistic forms (video, performance, installation, drawing...) also play a central role, superimposing “written forms” to offer decisively multidisciplinary works.

The thematic dossier and complementary sections in this issue on dance confirm the longstanding interest of esse in practices whose scope lies beyond that of the visual arts. Additional essays as well as exhibition and event reviews, including several briefs on the performing arts, also underline esse’s interest in broader multidisciplinary practices. Other articles in our regular review section document the participation of numerous Quebec artists and galleries in major New York art events this year, while another author reflects on sound art in his report on the second edition of the esse/OBORO residency.

[Translated from the French by Louise Ashcroft]

Caption: Klaus Obermaier, Apparition, 2004. Photo: courtesy of Klaus Obermaier & Ars Electronica Futurelab

77 - Indignation - Hiver - 2013
Sylvette Babin

We, the outraged

They tell you we are dreamers. The true dreamers are those who think things can go on indefinitely the way they are. We are not dreamers. We are awakening from a dream that is turning into a nightmare.
Slavoj Zizek, Occupy! Scenes from Occupied America

The Indignation issue was inspired by a question. In a global context dominated by financial crises, social inequalities, and various forms of repression and dictatorship, where more and more citizens are taking to the streets to express their anger, how do artists express their indignation? This question could have given rise to a commentary on the new faces of activism and engaged art, in the process reviving the debates between so-called polemic art and “art for art’s sake.” Yet more urgent seemed to be to remember that artists are first and foremost citizens. If certain individuals among them decide — occasionally or persistently — to express their indignation through their art, others choose to take political action and to participate in popular demonstrations. For this reason, rather than analyzing the aesthetic codes of engaged art, we preferred to contemplate the various motifs of indignation, as well as the strategies employed by artists and citizens to express their discontent.

Last spring, Quebec also entered into an unprecedented social crisis.  Initiated by the mobilization of students against the tuition fee hikes imposed by the ruling government, the strike transformed into a mass popular movement, now commonly referred to as the “Maple Spring.” The sheer scale of the demonstrations that ensued, as well as the involvement of various members of the artistic community in the debates, encouraged us to launch this issue with an analysis of this student crisis — notably through its visual signatures — and to make it the subject of our portfolio, thus lending a Quebec flush to parts of this issue (1).  But the causes of indignation on the international scene are clearly more varied and far-reaching, being closely linked with socio-economic and political situations that have diverse and often more dire consequences for each of the communities concerned. Consequently, the various scenarios examined in this issue, spotlighting indignation in Quebec, Canada, Russia, Syria, Greece, and China (the United States, Mexico, and the Middle East are also mentioned), must unquestionably each be read with close regard to their respective contexts.

Despite the differences between these events and circumstances and the forms of expression chosen to counter them, a few similarities and affinities remain. Mass popular uprising is the most blatant example of such. Humour (or rather irony and cynicism) is also widespread, notably in the students’ slogans, on the École de la Montagne Rouge posters, in the performances of Pussy Riot, and even in Ai Weiwei dancing Gangnam Style. There is also new-found hope in both society and democracy, as well as the conviction that, by speaking out and taking action, it is possible to bring about change. This issue, although very humble given the diversity and scope of indignation around the globe, sheds light on some examples of outrage expressed by artists and citizens alike. Among the outraged are also authors who, by choosing to analyze certain subjects, give voice to their own concerns: “If there is indeed a sign of hope in Alexis, if there is a desire to question the economic sense within our democracies, this hope cannot remain mere indignation. [...] And while indignation may seem to take precedence these days, it must not be transformed into resignation. It must thoughtfully transform itself into a fight for dignity.” (André-Louis Paré, p. 39)
“Consequently, for us, indignation marks but the stage of realization, the catalyst for the truly significant protest actions that ensued. Indignation called for action — ideally liberating action.” (Charron and St-Gelais, p. 6)

If we had to identify a final similarity between the ever-increasing number of outraged citizens in the world, it would have to be the spirit of solidarity that unites them, and which allows the voice of each individual to carry a little further and to extend the circle made up of those who are the raisers of global consciousness.

[Translated from the French by Louise Ashcroft]

(1) The recurring presence of the now famous red square prompts us to consider its origins, which can be traced back to October 5, 2004, when members of the Collectif pour un Québec sans pauvreté (Collective for a poverty-free Quebec), in response to a proposed action plan to combat poverty and social exclusion (Bill 57), presented themselves at the Quebec National Assembly carrying a red square “as an expression of indignation against the manner with which the government has chosen to further marginalize people in the red.”

76 - The Idea of Painting - Automne - 2012
Sylvette Babin

The Idea of Painting

The assertion that painting is dead, expressed periodically over the past few decades, makes one smile all the more considering the omnipresence of paintings in galleries and museums and at art fairs and other market-related events. Indisputably, our interest in painting has not faltered despite the advent and continual advancement of cutting-edge visual technology. It is therefore not the decline of painting that will be addressed in this issue, but rather that which bears witness to its vitality and renewal. Of course, such a theme raises questions about which direction to favour, given the multitude of conceptual tendencies and myriad formal and aesthetic approaches adopted by painting today. Faced with this multiplicity, it no longer seems pertinent to simply assess artistic trends in painting, nor to revive the moribund debates around abstraction and representation.

Our selected theme, The Idea of Painting, might give one to believe that we have chosen to take a stand on painting as a medium (painting-painting) and favour research focusing on painting as subject. Yet this window on artistic practices calling upon various codes of painting, its aesthetic conventions, and historical references (photography, sculpture, performance, tableaux vivants) has clearly underlined the vivid influence of painting in every area of the arts, which by no means implies that the pictorial or the gesture of painting have been excluded from this dossier. On the contrary, it is a definitively assertive painting that comes to light here. It is evident that in many respects modernist painting — like the monochrome — still informs numerous artistic lines of thought and that many authors reference this period in art history to bring perspective to contemporary works. This leaning should not, however, be seen as an overriding aspect of present-day painting; works composed of figurative elements — and which tend to draw on various movements from the 1980s wishing to break with the dictates of modernism (for example, the international trans-avant-garde) — are also awarded significant space in this edition.

In view of the vitality of painting and the multiplication of genres, we have to admit that it is impossible to give an account of every artist’s concerns at the beginning of the twenty-first century, nor to paint a comprehensive portrait. With a few exceptions, we have therefore opted to confine our panorama to the Quebec and Canadian context, particularly in the portfolio, which provides significant insight into the variety of approaches within this geographical framework. Given the breadth of this topic, we have also chosen to set aside the articles section and dedicate the majority of this issue to the thematic dossier.

[Translated from the French by Louise Ashcroft]

75 - Living Things - Printemps / été - 2012
Sylvette Babin

Inanimate objects, do you have a soul?

How do we “relate” to the objects that still play such a significant role in artistic practice? What do such objects say about themselves, about us, and about art or society? What power do they have over us and our habits of consumption? What symbolic values do we project upon them? In the previous issue, esse opened a discussion on the return — or the persistence — of the materiality of art by focusing on the topic of reskilling. The object itself now takes centre stage, not so much for its material properties but rather for its “existential” character. In light of Bill Brown’s “Thing Theory,” which is our point of departure, the present issue revolves around the precise moment in which the object becomes a “thing,” that is, the very moment it takes on a new life and thereby establishes a relation between subject and animated object.(1) By the term “animated object” we understand it to mean an object attributed with “life” rather than one that merely moves. Of course, one does not exclude the other, yet objects animated by a mechanism are examined here insofar as their movement is precisely that which bestows life on the work.

This issue’s theme is thus an invitation to reflect on the state of the object in contemporary art from perspectives as diverse as the transformation of the use value of objects into symbolic or artistic values, fetishism or the desire to possess the object, the cult of objects, and the critical power we bestow upon them. This issue also explores how the contemporary notion of the animated object differs from animism in the relationships of exchange that exist between the object and the beholder, while shedding new light on ritualistic objects and the primitivism that prevails in the way we relate to the world. The question of the object as commodity is also addressed, by questioning the commodity fetishism triggered by consumer society (and sometimes the art market), and by examining how certain artists attempt to circumvent the codes of commodity fetishism itself. We also consider the strategies whereby objects resist the process of dematerialization afforded by computer technology, despite their creative use of digital technologies and their modus operandi.

If the question of the “soul” of objects is but metaphorical, the diverse artworks examined in the following pages invite us to reflect nonetheless on the power (the aura?) that pervades such works and on the different ways in which we engage with them.

[Translated from the French by Eduardo Ralickas]


(1) “The story of objects asserting themselves as things, then, is the story of a changed relation to the human subject and thus the story of how the thing really names less an object than a particular subject-object relation… You could imagine things, -second, as what is excessive in objects, as what exceeds their mere materialization as objects or their mere utilization as objects — their force as a sensuous presence or as a metaphysical presence, the magic by which objects become values, fetishes, idols, and totems.” Bill Brown, “Thing Theory,” in Things, (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2004), 4 – 5.


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